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In particular, the completion of a branch line to the small seaside town Blackpool from Poulton led to a sustained economic and demographic boom.
A sudden influx of visitors arriving by rail provided the motivation for entrepreneurs to build accommodation and create new attractions, leading to more visitors and a rapid cycle of growth throughout the s and s.
The growth was intensified by the practice among the Lancashire cotton mill owners of closing the factories for a week every year to service and repair machinery.
These became known as wakes weeks. In , the North Pier in Blackpool was completed, rapidly becoming a centre of attraction for elite visitors.
Central Pier was completed in , with a theatre and a large open-air dance floor. Many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines because even the all-covering beachwear of the period was considered immodest.
By the end of the century the English coastline had over large resort towns, some with populations exceeding 50, The development of the seaside resort abroad was stimulated by the well developed English love of the beach.
The French Riviera alongside the Mediterranean had already become a popular destination for the British upper class by the end of the 18th century.
In , the first railway to Nice was completed, making the Riviera accessible to visitors from all over Europe. By , residents of foreign enclaves in Nice, most of whom were British, numbered 25, In the United States, early seaside resorts in the late s catered to the wealthy class and city businessmen.
Cape May , New Jersey became one of the first coastal resorts in the United States, when regular steamboat traffic on the Delaware River began after the War of By , Henry Flagler extended several rail lines southward down the Atlantic coastline of the United States, enticing the northern upper-class families south to subtropical Florida.
Augustine in greater numbers, and by Flagler began construction of two large ornate hotels in St. Continental European attitudes towards gambling and nudity tended to be more lax than in Britain, and British and French entrepreneurs were quick to exploit the possibilities.
The place was renamed Monte Carlo. Commercial seabathing also spread to other areas of the United States and parts of the British Empire such as Australia , where surfing became popular in the early 20th century.
By the s cheap and affordable air travel was the catalyst for the growth of a truly global tourism market. Recreational fishing and leisure boat pursuits have recently become very lucrative, and traditional fishing villages are often well positioned to take advantage of this.
For example, Destin , on the coast of Florida , has evolved from an artisanal fishing village into a seaside resort dedicated to tourism with a large fishing fleet of recreational charter boats.
Seasideness is the distinct sense of place, or genius loci, associated with seaside resorts and as experienced by visitors to these coastal destinations.
Nevertheless, a connection with the sea lies at this heart of seasideness, and anecdotally it appears to be something shared by modern societies; it is a common theme in literature and the arts.
The case-study centred on Morecambe, a once popular Lancastrian resort on the North-West coast of England, which saw a dramatic decline in visitor numbers in the late 20th century and regeneration at the start of the 21st century.
One could argue that such resorts, like any destination, need to understand the motivation and experiences of visitors and this is one way in which an understanding of seasideness may be useful.
There are many seaside resorts on the jagged coastline of Croatia, including several on its islands, which have been popular for many years.
With three long coastlines, France has many seaside resorts on its various coasts; for specific towns in each region, see the following articles:.
Germany is famous for its traditional seaside resorts on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea coasts, mainly established in the 19th century. In German they are called Seebad "Sea Spa" or Seeheilbad , sometimes with Ostsee- or Nordsee- as prefixes for the respective coastline.
The most prestigious resorts can be found along the Baltic coastline, including the islands of Rugia and Usedom. They often feature a unique architectural style called resort architecture.
The coast of Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania alone has an overall length of km  and is nicknamed German Riviera.
Selection of German seaside resorts along the Baltic Sea coastline:. Greece, renowned as a summer destination, features a large amount of seaside resorts.
Some of them are listed below:. Youghal has been a favoured holiday destination for over years, situated on the banks of the River Blackwater as it reaches the sea.
Youghal is well known for its beaches, having been, until , the only town in the Republic of Ireland with two beaches awarded E. Dungarvan is a seaside market town beneath the mountains in the centre of the Irish south coast.
Seaside resorts in the East of Ireland developed after the introduction of rail travel. Other South Dublin towns and villages such as Sandycove , Dalkey and Killiney grew as seaside resorts when the rail network was expanded.
The town of Greystones , five miles south of Bray , also grew as a seaside resort when the railway line was extended in Ulster has a number of seaside resorts, such as Portrush , situated on the north coast, with its two beaches and a world-famous golf course, Royal Portrush Golf Club.
Bangor Marina is one of the largest in Ireland and the marina has on occasion been awarded the Blue Flag for attention to environmental issues.
The main seaside towns in the west of Ireland are in Clare ; the largest are Lahinch and Kilkee. Lahinch is a popular surfing location. Like British resorts, many seaside towns in Ireland have turned to other entertainment industries.
Larger resorts such as Bray or Portrush host air shows , while most resorts host summer festivals. Israel is a major tourist area.
Tourism in Israel is one of the major sources of income, with beautiful beaches, such as those found on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
Most tourists come from the United States and European countries. Italy is known for its seaside resorts, visited both by Italian and North European tourists.
Many of these resorts have a history of tourism which dates back to the 19th century. Many seaside resorts are located in Honshu , Shikoku , and Kyushu.
The following are the main resort towns in Malta: Mexican resorts are popular with many North American residents, with Mexico being the second most visited country in the Americas.
Notable resorts on the mainland and Baja Gold Coast and Peninsula include:. In the past the resorts have received mostly domestic tourism, however, since the s, following the opening of Polish borders, the international tourism has grown considerably.
Many European and world tourists visit Portuguese resorts, particularly those on the Algarve. The Romanian Black Sea resorts stretch from the Danube Delta in the north down to the Romanian-Bulgarian border in the south, along kilometers of coastline.
Spanish resorts are popular with many European and world residents. Notable resorts on the mainland and islands include:. The United Kingdom saw the popularisation of seaside resorts , and nowhere was this more seen than in Blackpool.
Blackpool catered for workers from across industrial Northern England , who packed its beaches and promenade.
Other northern towns for example Bridlington , Cleethorpes , Morecambe , Scarborough , Skegness , and Southport shared in the success of this new concept, especially from trade during wakes weeks.
The concept spread rapidly to other British coastal towns including several on the coast of North Wales , notably Rhyl , and Llandudno , the largest resort in Wales and known as "The Queen of the Welsh Resorts", from as early as Another area notable for its seaside resorts was and is the Firth of Clyde , outside Glasgow.
Glaswegians would take a ferry "doon the watter" from the city, down the River Clyde to the islands and peninsulas of the Firth of Clyde, such as Cowal , Bute , Arran , and Kintyre.
In contrast to the fates of many resorts, many from the Firth of Clyde have continued to enjoy prosperity thanks to their becoming middle-class commuter towns.
Some resorts, especially those more southerly such as Bournemouth and Brighton , were built as new towns or extended by local landowners to appeal to wealthier holidaymakers.
Others came about due to their proximity to large urban areas of population, such as Southend-on-sea , which became increasingly popular with residents of London once rail links were established to it allowing day trips from the City.
The sunshine and sea air were seen by Victorians as beneficial for health,  and resorts such as Ventnor owed their growth to a visit being considered as treatment for chest complaints.
Owing to its generally better climate, the south coast has many seaside towns, the most being in Sussex. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, the popularity of the British seaside resort has declined for the same reason that it first flourished: The greater accessibility of foreign holiday destinations, through package holidays and, more recently, European low-cost airlines , affords people the freedom to holiday abroad.
Despite the loyalty of returning holidaymakers, resorts such as Blackpool have struggled to compete against the favorable weather of Southern Europe and the sunbelt in the United States.
Now, many symbols of the traditional British resort holiday camps , end-of-the-pier shows and saucy postcards are regarded by some as drab and outdated; the skies are imagined to be overcast and the beach windswept.
This is not always true; for example Broadstairs in Kent has retained much of its old world charm with Punch and Judy and donkey rides and still remains popular being only one hour from the M Many seaside towns have turned to other entertainment industries, and some of them have a good deal of nightlife.
The cinemas and theatres often remain to become host to a number of pubs, bars, restaurants and nightclubs. Most of their entertainment facilities cater to local people and the beaches still remain popular during the summer months.
Although international tourism turned people away from British seaside towns, it also brought in foreign travel and as a result, many seaside towns offer foreign language schools, the students of which often return to vacation and sometimes to settle.
This led to a gradual decrease of the slave population. Industrialization accelerated in the northern part of the state following completion of the Morris Canal in In , the second state constitution was ratified and brought into effect.
Counties thereby became districts for the State Senate, and some realignment of boundaries including the creation of Mercer County immediately followed.
This provision was retained in the Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in by the decision Baker v.
While the Governorship was stronger than under the constitution, the constitution of created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself.
New Jersey was one of the few Union states the others being Delaware and Kentucky to select a candidate other than Abraham Lincoln twice in national elections, and sided with Stephen Douglas and George B.
McClellan during their campaigns. In New Jersey, the factions of the Democratic party managed an effective coalition in During the course of the war, over 80, from the state enlisted in the Northern army; unlike many states, including some Northern ones, no battle was fought there.
In the Industrial Revolution , cities like Paterson grew and prospered. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil.
This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk.
Inventor Thomas Edison also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1, patents , many of which for inventions he developed while working in New Jersey.
Christie Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to have electric lighting. Transportation was greatly improved as locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey.
Iron mining was also a leading industry during the middle to late 19th century. Bog iron pits in the southern New Jersey Pinelands were among the first sources of iron for the new nation.
Mining generated the impetus for new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal. Zinc mines were also a major industry, especially the Sterling Hill Mine.
New Jersey prospered through the Roaring Twenties. During the Great Depression of the s, the state offered begging licenses to unemployed residents,  the zeppelin airship Hindenburg crashed in flames over Lakehurst , and the SS Morro Castle beached itself near Asbury Park after going up in flames while at sea.
Through both World Wars , New Jersey was a center for war production, especially in naval construction, notably at Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company.
Battleships, cruisers, and destroyers were made in the state. New Jersey manufactured 6. New Jersey also became a principal location for defense in the Cold War.
PT , a motor torpedo boat commanded by Lt. In the s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey.
Several others ensued in , in Newark and Plainfield. Other riots followed the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
A riot occurred in Camden in As a result of an order from the New Jersey Supreme Court to fund schools equitably, the New Jersey legislature passed an income tax bill in Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax.
In the early part of the s, two light rail systems were opened: The intent of these projects were to encourage transit-oriented development in North Jersey and South Jersey, respectively.
New Jersey is often broadly divided into three geographic regions: Some New Jersey residents do not consider Central Jersey a region in its own right, but others believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area from the North and South.
Within those regions are five distinct areas, based upon natural geography and population concentration. Northeastern New Jersey lies closest to Manhattan in New York City, and up to 1 million residents commute daily into the city for work, often via public transportation.
The Jersey shore , along the Atlantic Coast in Central and South Jersey, has its own unique natural, residential, and cultural characteristics owing to its location by the ocean.
The Delaware Valley includes the southwestern counties of the state, which reside within the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area.
The Pine Barrens region is in the southern interior of New Jersey. Covered rather extensively by mixed pine and oak forest, it has a much lower population density than much of the rest of the state.
Four counties have independent metro areas, and Warren County is part of the Pennsylvania-based Lehigh Valley metro area. New Jersey is also at the center of the Northeast megalopolis.
There are two climatic conditions in the state. The south, central, and northeast parts of the state have a humid subtropical climate, while the northwest has a humid continental climate microthermal , with much cooler temperatures due to higher elevation.
New Jersey receives between 2, and 2, hours of sunshine annually. Spring and autumn may feature wide temperature variations, with lower humidity than summer.
Precipitation falls on an average of days a year, with 25 to 30 thunderstorms, most of which occur during the summer. As of the census, there were 8,, people residing in the state.
The racial makeup of the state was:. Non-Hispanic Whites were In , unauthorized immigrants constituted an estimated 6. This was the fourth-highest percentage of any state in the country.
As of , New Jersey was the eleventh-most populous state in the United States, and the most densely populated, at 1, residents per square mile per km 2 , with most of the population residing in the counties surrounding New York City, Philadelphia, and along the eastern Jersey Shore , while the extreme southern and northwestern counties are relatively less dense overall.
It is also the second wealthiest state according to the U. New Jersey is home to more scientists and engineers per square mile than anywhere else in the world.
On October 21, , same-sex marriages commenced in New Jersey. New Jersey is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse states in the country.
As of , New Jersey also has the fourth largest Filipino population, and fourth largest Chinese population, per the U.
The five largest ethnic groups in were: Newark was the fourth poorest of U. For further information on various ethnic groups and neighborhoods prominently featured within New Jersey, see the following articles:.
High-rise residential complexes in the borough of Fort Lee , Bergen County. Paterson , known as the "Silk City",  has become a prime destination for an internationally diverse pool of immigrants,   with at least 52 distinct ethnic groups.
Skyscrapers in Jersey City , one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the world. By number of adherents, the largest denominations in New Jersey, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives in , were the Roman Catholic Church with 3,,; Islam with ,; and the United Methodist Church with , Little Ramallah in Paterson is an increasingly popular destination for Muslim immigrants.
For its overall population and nation-leading population density, New Jersey has a relative paucity of classic large cities.
Many urban areas extend far beyond the limits of a single large city, as New Jersey cities and indeed municipalities in general tend to be geographically small; three of the four largest cities in New Jersey by population have under 20 square miles of land area, and eight of the top ten, including all of the top five have land area under 30 square miles.
As of the United States Census [update] , only four municipalities had populations in excess of ,, although Edison and Woodbridge came very close.
New Jersey has seven tax brackets that determine state income tax rates, which range from 1. The standard sales tax rate as of January 1, , is 6.
This rate, which is comparably lower than that of New York City, often attracts numerous shoppers from New York City, often to suburban Paramus , New Jersey, which has five malls, one of which the Garden State Plaza has over two million square feet of retail space.
Tax exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medications, most clothing, footwear and disposable paper products for use in the home.
In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3. New Jersey does not assess an intangible personal property tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax.
New Jersey consistently ranks as having one of the highest proportional levels of disparity of any state in the United States, based upon what it receives from the federal government relative to what it gives.
In , WalletHub ranked New Jersey the state least dependent upon federal government aid overall and having the fourth lowest return on taxpayer investment from the federal government, at 48 cents per dollar.
New Jersey has one of the highest tax burdens in the nation. As shown by the study, incomes tend to be higher in New Jersey, which puts those in higher tax brackets especially vulnerable to the alternative minimum tax.
Although New Jersey is home to many energy-intensive industries, its energy consumption is only 2. New Jersey has three nuclear power plants, including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station , which came online in and is the oldest operating nuclear plant in the country.
There is also a strong service economy in retail sales, education, and real estate, serving residents who work in New York City or Philadelphia.
New Jersey hosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune companies. In , a referendum of New Jersey voters approved casino gambling in Atlantic City, where the first legalized casino opened in The Pine Barrens , consisting of pine forests, is in the southern part of the state.
Some mining activity of zinc , iron, and manganese still takes place in the area in and around the Franklin Furnace.
The state has more than 10, solar installations. In , there were school districts in the state. Rosenberg retracted this plan when criticized for taking the money out of healthcare to fund this initiative.
In , New Jersey spent more per each public school student than any other U. Nine New Jersey high schools were ranked among the top 25 in the U.
New Jersey has continued to play a prominent role as a U. Like every state, New Jersey has its own cuisine , religious communities , museums , and halls of fame.
New Jersey is the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radio , the motion picture camera, the lithium battery , the light bulb , transistors , and the electric train.
Other New Jersey creations include: Diners are iconic to New Jersey. The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has over diners, more than any other place in the world.
New Jersey is the only state without a state song. New Jersey is frequently the target of jokes in American culture,  especially from New York City-based television shows, such as Saturday Night Live.
The New Jersey Turnpike , which runs between two major East Coast cities, New York City and Philadelphia , is also cited as a reason, as people who traverse through the state may only see its industrial zones.
New Jersey is known for several foods developed within the region, including Taylor Ham also known as pork roll , cheesesteaks , and scrapple.
Several states with substantial Italian American populations take credit for the development of submarine sandwiches , including New Jersey. New Jersey has long been an important origin for both rock and rap music.
Prominent musicians from or with significant connections to New Jersey include:. Motion picture technology was developed by Thomas Edison , with much of his early work done at his West Orange laboratory.
A number of television shows and films have been filmed in New Jersey. Since , the state has maintained a Motion Picture and Television Commission to encourage filming in-state.
Governor Chris Christie suspended the credits in , but the New Jersey State Legislature in approved the restoration and expansion of the tax credit program.
The New Jersey Turnpike is one of the most prominent and heavily trafficked roadways in the United States. This toll road , which overlaps with Interstate 95 for much of its length, carries traffic between Delaware and New York, and up and down the East Coast in general.
Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike," it is known for its numerous rest areas named after prominent New Jerseyans. It is the main route that connects the New York metropolitan area to the Jersey Shore and is consistently one of the safest roads in the nation.
With a total of 15 travel and 6 shoulder lanes, the Driscoll Bridge on the Parkway, spanning the Raritan River in Middlesex County , is the widest motor vehicle bridge in the world by number of lanes as well as one of the busiest.
New Jersey is connected to New York City via various key bridges and tunnels. The double-decked George Washington Bridge carries the heaviest load of motor vehicle traffic of any bridge in the world, at million vehicles per year, across fourteen lanes.
New Jersey has interstate compacts with all three of its neighboring states. It is unlawful for a customer to serve themselves gasoline in New Jersey.
It became the last remaining U. FedEx Express operates a large cargo terminal at Newark as well. Two smaller commercial airports, Atlantic City International Airport and Trenton-Mercer Airport , also operate in other parts of the state.
Teterboro Airport in Bergen County , and Millville Municipal Airport in Cumberland County , are general aviation airports popular with private and corporate aircraft due to their proximity to New York City and the Jersey Shore , respectively.
NJ Transit operates extensive rail and bus service throughout the state. A state-run corporation, it began with the consolidation of several private bus companies in North Jersey in Today, NJ Transit has eleven commuter rail lines that run through different parts of the state.
One line provides service between Atlantic City and Philadelphia , Pennsylvania. NJ Transit also operates three light rail systems in the state. The Newark Light Rail is partially underground, and connects downtown Newark with other parts of the city.
The River Line connects Trenton and Camden. Amtrak operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jersey, both to and from neighboring states and around the country.
Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned buses are provided to these carriers, of which Coach USA companies make up the bulk.
Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware to the casino resorts of Atlantic City.
The position of Governor of New Jersey has been considered one of the most powerful in the nation. Until , the governor was the only statewide elected executive official in the state and appointed numerous government officials.
Formerly, an acting governor was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as President of the New Jersey State Senate , thus directing half of the legislative and all of the executive process.
A amendment to the state Constitution prevents the Senate President from becoming acting governor in the event of a permanent gubernatorial vacancy without giving up her or his seat in the state Senate.
Phil Murphy D is the Governor. Before , New Jersey was one of the few states without a lieutenant governor. The position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, and effective as of January 17, The current version of the New Jersey State Constitution was adopted in It provides for a bicameral New Jersey Legislature , consisting of an upper house Senate of 40 members and a lower house General Assembly of 80 members.
Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one State Senator and two Assembly members. Assembly members are elected for a two-year term in all odd-numbered years; State Senators are elected in the years ending in 1, 3, and 7 and thus serve either four- or two-year terms.
New Jersey is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years. The others are Kentucky , Louisiana , Mississippi , and Virginia.
New Jersey holds elections for these offices every four years, in the year following each federal Presidential election year. Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a Governor was ; the next gubernatorial election will occur in All are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate.
Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jersey courts is carried out in the Municipal Court, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard.
More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the Superior Court for each county. All Superior Court judges are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate.
Each judge serves an initial seven-year term, after which he or she can be reappointed to serve until age There is also a Tax Court, which is a court of limited jurisdiction.
Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax decisions made by County Boards of Taxation. They also hear appeals on decisions made by the Director of the Division of Taxation on such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and homestead rebates.
Tax Court judges are appointed by the Governor for initial terms of seven years, and upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the mandatory retirement age of There are 12 Tax Court judgeships.
New Jersey is divided into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial era. New Jersey was completely divided into counties by ; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County in New Jersey is the only state in the nation where elected county officials are called "Freeholders," governing each county as part of its own Board of Chosen Freeholders.
The number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum, and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members. Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders or split into separate branches of government.
In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each Freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments.
In the other 5 counties Atlantic , Bergen , Essex , Hudson and Mercer , there is a directly elected County Executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role.
In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator or County Manager may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions.
New Jersey currently has municipalities; the number was before Princeton Township and Princeton Borough merged to form the municipality of Princeton on January 1, Unlike other states, all New Jersey land is part of a municipality.
In , Governor Jon Corzine proposed cutting state aid to all towns under 10, people, to encourage mergers to reduce administrative costs.
Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. This began with the Walsh Act , enacted in by the New Jersey Legislature , which provided for a three- or five-member commission elected on a non-partisan basis.
This was followed by the Municipal Manager Law , which offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected by and from the members of the council, and introduced a Council-manager government structure with an appointed manager responsible for day-to-day administration of municipal affairs.
The Faulkner Act , originally enacted in and substantially amended in , offers four basic plans: The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the characteristics of its government: Municipalities can also formulate their own unique form of government and operate under a Special Charter with the approval of the New Jersey Legislature.
While municipalities retain their names derived from types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public.
For example, though there are four municipalities that are officially of the village type, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of government.
Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. New Jersey also has some of the most stringent gun control laws in the U.
These include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets and even slingshots. No gun offense in New Jersey is graded less than a felony.
BB guns and black-powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. New Jersey does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws.
In past elections, New Jersey was a Republican bastion, but recently has become a Democratic stronghold. House of Representatives , and both U. In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the Democratic Party.
For many years in the past, however, it was a Republican stronghold, having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican candidate in the close elections of , , and New Jersey was a crucial swing state in the elections of , , and The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along the coast in Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Morris County , Sussex County , and Warren County.
Other suburban counties, especially Bergen County and Burlington County had the majority of votes go to the Democratic Party.
Independent candidate Ralph Nader garnered less than one percent of the vote. Other "swing" counties like Monmouth County , Somerset County , and Cape May County tend to go Republican, as they also have population in conservative areas, although Somerset has recently trended Democratic.
To be eligible to vote in a U. On December 17, , Governor Jon Corzine signed into law a bill that would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey.
New Jersey is the first state to pass such legislation since Iowa and West Virginia eliminated executions in There is also a mineral museum Ogdensburg in Sussex County.
Visitors and residents take advantage of and contribute to performances at the numerous music, theater, and dance companies and venues located throughout the state, including:.
Since , they have played their home games at the Prudential Center in Newark. The Meadowlands Sports Complex is also home to the Meadowlands Racetrack , one of three major harness racing tracks in the state.
That track, along with Freehold Raceway in Freehold , are two of the major harness racing tracks in North America. Monmouth Park Racetrack in Oceanport is a popular spot for thoroughbred horse racing.
Rutgers joined the Big Ten Conference in The Pirates made a huge comeback as a program in with a top-5 recruiting class nationally.
The Pirates have support in the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of the state and the Jersey Shore. Rutgers and Princeton have an intense rivalry — stemming from the first intercollegiate football game in — though the two schools have not met on the football field since They continue to play each other annually in other sports.
The university also fields rising basketball and baseball programs. Sports are divided between 3 seasons fall, winter, and spring.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the U. For other uses, see New Jersey disambiguation.
For other uses, see NJ disambiguation. State of the United States of America. The Garden State . The Flag of New Jersey.
The Seal of New Jersey. History of New Jersey. New Jersey in the 19th century. New Jersey in the 20th century. Interactive map of New Jersey.
New Jersey in the 21st century. Geography of New Jersey. Religion in New Jersey. List of counties in New Jersey. List of municipalities in New Jersey.
Largest cities or towns in New Jersey Source: New Jersey locations by per capita income. Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New Jersey. Gambling in New Jersey.
Cuisine of New Jersey. Music of New Jersey. List of radio stations in New Jersey. Television and film of New Jersey. Transportation in New Jersey.
List of New Jersey State Highways. Government of New Jersey. Phil Murphy D 56th Governor since January 16, Robert Menendez D Senior U. Cory Booker D Junior U.
Judiciary of New Jersey. List of New Jersey counties. Politics of New Jersey. Elections in New Jersey. Political party strength in New Jersey.
Capital punishment in New Jersey. List of museums in New Jersey. Sports in New Jersey. List of college athletic programs in New Jersey. List of New Jersey state symbols.
List of people from New Jersey. New Jersey portal United States portal. Retrieved February 10,