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Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes , Aristippus , and Aeschines of Sphettos. Aristophanes , a playwright , is the only source to have written during his lifetime.
It is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method , or elenchus.
Socrates exerted a strong influence on philosophers in later antiquity and in the modern era. Depictions of Socrates in art, literature and popular culture have made him one of the most widely known figures in the Western philosophical tradition.
As Socrates did not write down any of his teachings,   secondary sources provide the only information on his life and thought. The sometimes contradictory nature of these sources is known as the Socratic problem ,  or the Socratic question.
As for discovering the real-life Socrates, the difficulty is that ancient sources are mostly philosophical or dramatic texts, apart from Xenophon.
There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with Socrates, that dealt with his own time and place. A corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan.
For instance, those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, even if consistent.
Two factors emerge from all sources pertaining to the character of Socrates: The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology , Crito , Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
Also, Xenophon, being an historian, is a more reliable witness to the historical Socrates. As British philosopher Martin Cohen has put it, "Plato, the idealist, offers an idol, a master figure, for philosophy.
It is also clear from other writings and historical artefacts, that Socrates was not simply a character, nor an invention, of Plato.
These contradictions produce doubt as to the actual philosophical doctrines of Socrates, within his milieu and as recorded by other individuals. Within the Metaphysics , he states Socrates was occupied with the search for moral virtues, being the "first to search for universal definitions for them".
The problem of understanding Socrates as a philosopher is shown in the following: However, in The Clouds , Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a Sophist school with Chaerephon.
More specifically, in the Apology , Socrates cites his poverty as proof that he is not a teacher. Two fragments are extant of the writings by Timon of Phlius pertaining to Socrates,  although Timon is known to have written to ridicule and lampoon philosophy.
Details about the life of Socrates are derived from both contemporary sources, and later ancient period sources. Of the contemporary sources, the greater extent of information is taken from the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon both devotees of Socrates , and the testaments of Antisthenes , Aristippus , and Aeschines of Sphettos , and the lesser  from the plays of Aristophanes.
The sources are thought to have in part or wholly made use of the factual information of the life of Socrates available to each of them, to give their own interpretation of the nature of his teaching, giving rise to differing versions in each case.
The year of birth of Socrates stated is an assumed date,  or estimate,  given the fact of the dating of anything in ancient history in part being sometimes reliant on argument stemming from the inexact period floruit of individuals.
Socrates was born in Alopeke , and belonged to the tribe Antiochis. His father was Sophroniscus , a sculptor, or stonemason.
Socrates first worked as a stonemason, and there was a tradition in antiquity, not credited by modern scholarship, that Socrates crafted the statues of the Charites , which stood near the Acropolis until the 2nd century AD.
Xenophon reports that because youths were not allowed to enter the Agora , they used to gather in workshops surrounding it.
Most notable among them was Simon the Shoemaker. In the monologue of the Apology , Socrates states he was active for Athens in the battles of Amphipolis , Delium , and Potidaea.
In the Apology, Socrates compares his military service to his courtroom troubles, and says anyone on the jury who thinks he ought to retreat from philosophy must also think soldiers should retreat when it seems likely that they will be killed in battle.
During , he participated as a member of the Boule. The generals were seen by some to have failed to uphold the most basic of duties, and the people decided upon capital punishment.
However, when the prytany responded by refusing to vote on the issue, the people reacted with threats of death directed at the prytany itself.
They relented, at which point Socrates alone as epistates blocked the vote, which had been proposed by Callixeinus.
He was to be brought back to be subsequently executed. However, Socrates returned home and did not go to Salamis as he was expected to.
Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of the Athenian hegemony to its decline with the defeat by Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnesian War.
At a time when Athens sought to stabilize and recover from its defeat, the Athenian public may have been entertaining doubts about democracy as an efficient form of government.
Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy,  and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting.
Claiming loyalty to his city, Socrates clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society. Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the development of what he perceived as immorality within his region, Socrates questioned the collective notion of "might makes right" that he felt was common in Greece during this period.
Plato refers to Socrates as the " gadfly " of the state as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians , insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness.
Questioning them, however, Socrates concluded: Socrates realized the Oracle was correct; while so-called wise men thought themselves wise and yet were not, he himself knew he was not wise at all, which, paradoxically, made him the wiser one since he was the only person aware of his own ignorance.
Socrates defended his role as a gadfly until the end: After he lay down, the man who administered the poison pinched his foot; Socrates could no longer feel his legs.
The numbness slowly crept up his body until it reached his heart. Socrates chose to cover his face during the execution a6 Phaedo.
According to Phaedo 61c—69e ,  Socrates states that "[a]ll of philosophy is training for death". Gill ,  or sincere J. Xenophon and Plato agree that Socrates had an opportunity to escape, as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards.
There have been several suggestions offered as reasons why he chose to stay:. The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of the Crito.
Frey has suggested in truth, Socrates chose to commit suicide. Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice.
It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek.
The Socratic method has often been considered as a defining element of American legal education. To illustrate the use of the Socratic method, a series of questions are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge.
The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.
An alternative interpretation of the dialectic is that it is a method for direct perception of the Form of the Good. The beliefs of Socrates, as distinct from those of Plato, are difficult to discern.
Little in the way of concrete evidence exists to demarcate the two. The lengthy presentation of ideas given in most of the dialogues may be the ideas of Socrates himself, but which have been subsequently deformed or changed by Plato, and some scholars think Plato so adapted the Socratic style as to make the literary character and the philosopher himself impossible to distinguish.
Others argue that he did have his own theories and beliefs. Consequently, distinguishing the philosophical beliefs of Socrates from those of Plato and Xenophon has not proven easy, so it must be remembered that what is attributed to Socrates might actually be more the specific concerns of these two thinkers instead.
The matter is complicated because the historical Socrates seems to have been notorious for asking questions but not answering, claiming to lack wisdom concerning the subjects about which he questioned others.
If anything in general can be said about the philosophical beliefs of Socrates, it is that he was morally, intellectually, and politically at odds with many of his fellow Athenians.
When he is on trial for heresy and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, he uses his method of elenchos to demonstrate to the jurors that their moral values are wrong-headed.
He tells them they are concerned with their families, careers, and political responsibilities when they ought to be worried about the "welfare of their souls".
Socrates also questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete virtue can be taught. He liked to observe that successful fathers such as the prominent military general Pericles did not produce sons of their own quality.
Socrates argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than parental nurture. This belief may have contributed to his lack of anxiety about the future of his own sons.
Also, according to A. According to Xenophon, he was a teleologist who held that god arranges everything for the best. He mentions several influences: Prodicus the rhetor and Anaxagoras the philosopher.
Perhaps surprisingly, Socrates claims to have been deeply influenced by two women besides his mother: Many of the beliefs traditionally attributed to the historical Socrates have been characterized as "paradoxical" because they seem to conflict with common sense.
The following are among the so-called Socratic paradoxes: Therefore, Socrates is claiming to know about the art of love, insofar as he knows how to ask questions.
The only time he actually claimed to be wise was within Apology , in which he says he is wise "in the limited sense of having human wisdom".
For his part as a philosophical interlocutor, he leads his respondent to a clearer conception of wisdom, although he claims he is not himself a teacher Apology.
Perhaps significantly, he points out that midwives are barren due to age, and women who have never given birth are unable to become midwives; they would have no experience or knowledge of birth and would be unable to separate the worthy infants from those that should be left on the hillside to be exposed.
To judge this, the midwife must have experience and knowledge of what she is judging. Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on the pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit, for instance, of material wealth.
These virtues represented the most important qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the philosophical or intellectual virtues.
Socrates stressed that " the unexamined life is not worth living [and] ethical virtue is the only thing that matters.
It is argued that Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand",  making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others.
It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates found short of ideal any government that did not conform to his presentation of a perfect regime led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far from that.
The Tyrants ruled for about a year before the Athenian democracy was reinstated, at which point it declared an amnesty for all recent events.
He believed he was a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of Truth, and did not claim to know it fully. It is often claimed much of the anti-democratic leanings are from Plato, who was never able to overcome his disgust at what was done to his teacher.
In any case, it is clear Socrates thought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants was also objectionable; when called before them to assist in the arrest of a fellow Athenian, Socrates refused and narrowly escaped death before the Tyrants were overthrown.
He did, however, fulfill his duty to serve as Prytanis when a trial of a group of Generals who presided over a disastrous naval campaign were judged; even then, he maintained an uncompromising attitude, being one of those who refused to proceed in a manner not supported by the laws, despite intense pressure.
Irvine argues that it was because of his loyalty to Athenian democracy that Socrates was willing to accept the verdict of his fellow citizens.
As Irvine puts it, "During a time of war and great social and intellectual upheaval, Socrates felt compelled to express his views openly, regardless of the consequences.
As a result, he is remembered today, not only for his sharp wit and high ethical standards, but also for his loyalty to the view that in a democracy the best way for a man to serve himself, his friends, and his city—even during times of war—is by being loyal to, and by speaking publicly about, the truth.
In the Dialogues of Plato, though Socrates sometimes seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions , this is generally attributed to Plato.
In the Symposium , Socrates credits his speech on the philosophic path to his teacher, the priestess Diotima , who is not even sure if Socrates is capable of reaching the highest mysteries.
Further confusions result from the nature of these sources, insofar as the Platonic Dialogues are arguably the work of an artist-philosopher, whose meaning does not volunteer itself to the passive reader nor again the lifelong scholar.
According to Olympiodorus the Younger in his Life of Plato ,  Plato himself "received instruction from the writers of tragedy" before taking up the study of philosophy.
These indirect methods may fail to satisfy some readers. It was this sign that prevented Socrates from entering into politics. In the Phaedrus , we are told Socrates considered this to be a form of "divine madness", the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry , mysticism , love , and even philosophy itself.
Today, such a voice would be classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a command hallucination.
Socrates practiced and advocated divination. In the play, Socrates is ridiculed for his dirtiness, which is associated with the Laconizing fad; also in plays by Callias , Eupolis , and Telecleides.
Other comic poets who lampooned Socrates include Mnesimachus and Ameipsias. In all of these, Socrates and the Sophists were criticized for "the moral dangers inherent in contemporary thought and literature".
Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle are the main sources for the historical Socrates; however, Xenophon and Plato were students of Socrates, and they may idealize him; however, they wrote the only extended descriptions of Socrates that have come down to us in their complete form.
Aristotle refers frequently, but in passing, to Socrates in his writings. Although his Apology is a monologue delivered by Socrates, it is usually grouped with the Dialogues.
The Apology professes to be a record of the actual speech Socrates delivered in his own defense at the trial. In the Athenian jury system, an "apology" is composed of three parts: Plato generally does not place his own ideas in the mouth of a specific speaker; he lets ideas emerge via the Socratic Method , under the guidance of Socrates.
Most of the dialogues present Socrates applying this method to some extent, but nowhere as completely as in the Euthyphro.
What is the pious, and what the impious? The soul , before its incarnation in the body, was in the realm of Ideas very similar to the Platonic "Forms".
There, it saw things the way they truly are, rather than the pale shadows or copies we experience on earth. By a process of questioning, the soul can be brought to remember the ideas in their pure form, thus bringing wisdom.
Immediately, the students of Socrates set to work both on exercising their perceptions of his teachings in politics and also on developing many new philosophical schools of thought.
While "Socrates dealt with moral matters and took no notice at all of nature in general",  in his Dialogues, Plato would emphasize mathematics with metaphysical overtones mirroring that of Pythagoras —the former who would dominate Western thought well into the Renaissance.
Aristotle himself was as much of a philosopher as he was a scientist with extensive work in the fields of biology and physics. While some of the later contributions of Socrates to Hellenistic Era culture and philosophy as well as the Roman Era have been lost to time, his teachings began a resurgence in both medieval Europe and the Islamic Middle East alongside those of Aristotle and Stoicism.
Socrates is mentioned in the dialogue Kuzari by Jewish philosopher and rabbi Yehuda Halevi in which a Jew instructs the Khazar king about Judaism.
To this day, different versions of the Socratic method are still used in classroom and law school discourse to expose underlying issues in both subject and the speaker.
Evaluation of and reaction to Socrates has been undertaken by both historians and philosophers from the time of his death to the present day with a multitude of conclusions and perspectives.
Although he was not directly prosecuted for his connection to Critias, leader of the Spartan-backed Thirty Tyrants , and "showed considerable personal courage in refusing to submit to [them]", he was seen by some as a figure who mentored oligarchs who became abusive tyrants, and undermined Athenian democracy.
The Sophistic movement that he railed at in life survived him, but by the 3rd century BC, was rapidly overtaken by the many philosophical schools of thought that Socrates influenced.
Some modern scholarship holds that, with so much of his own thought obscured and possibly altered by Plato, it is impossible to gain a clear picture of Socrates amid all the contradictory evidence.
That both Cynicism and Stoicism , which carried heavy influence from Socratic thought, were unlike or even contrary to Platonism further illustrates this.
When the text has been fully discussed and the inner circle is finished talking, the outer circle provides feedback on the dialogue that took place.
This process alternates with the inner circle students going to the outer circle for the next meeting and vice versa. The length of this process varies depending on the text used for the discussion.
The teacher may decide to alternate groups within one meeting, or they may alternate at each separate meeting. The most significant difference between this activity and most typical classroom activities involves the role of the teacher.
In Socratic Circles the students lead the discussion and questioning. Teachers use Socratic Circles in different ways. The structure it takes may look different in each classroom.
While this is not an exhaustive list, teachers may use one of the following structures to administer Socratic Seminar:. The seminars encourage students to work together, creating meaning from the text and to stay away from trying to find a correct interpretation.
The emphasis is on critical and creative thinking. A Socratic Circle text is a tangible document that creates a thought-provoking discussion. Furthermore, the seminar text enables the participants to create a level playing field — ensuring that the dialogical tone within the classroom remains consistent and pure to the subject or topic at hand.
Ideas and values - The text must introduce ideas and values that are complex and difficult to summarize. Complexity and challenge - The text must be rich in ideas and complexity  and open to interpretation.
Relevance to participants and curriculum - An effective text has identifiable themes that are recognizable and pertinent to the lives of the participants.
Ambiguity - The text must be approachable from a variety of different perspectives, including perspectives that seem mutually exclusive, thus provoking critical thinking and raising important questions.
The absence of right and wrong answers promotes a variety of discussion and encourages individual contributions. Subject area, which can draw from print or non-print artifacts.
As examples, language arts can be approached through poems, history through written or oral historical speeches, science through policies on environmental issues, math through mathematical proofs, health through nutrition labels, and physical education through fitness guidelines.
Socratic Circles are based upon the interaction of peers. The focus is to explore multiple perspectives on a given issue or topic.
Socratic questioning is used to help students apply the activity to their learning. The pedagogy of Socratic questions is open-ended, focusing on broad, general ideas rather than specific, factual information.
Socratic circles generally start with an open-ended question proposed either by the leader or by another participant.
The leader keeps the topic focused by asking a variety of questions about the text itself, as well as questions to help clarify positions when arguments become confused.
The leader also seeks to coax reluctant participants into the discussion, and to limit contributions from those who tend to dominate. The leader guides participants to deepen, clarify, and paraphrase, and to synthesize a variety of different views.
The participants share the responsibility with the leader to maintain the quality of the Socratic circle. They listen actively in order to respond effectively to what others have contributed.
This teaches the participants to think and speak persuasively using the discussion to support their position.
Questions can be created individually or in small groups. The Socratic method, in the form of Socratic questioning , has been adapted for psychotherapy, most prominently in classical Adlerian psychotherapy , logotherapy ,  rational emotive behavior therapy , cognitive therapy    and reality therapy.
It can be used to clarify meaning, feeling, and consequences, as well as to gradually unfold insight, or explore alternative actions.
The Socratic method has also recently inspired a new form of applied philosophy: Socratic dialogue , also called philosophical counseling. In Europe Gerd B.
Achenbach is probably the best known practitioner, and Michel Weber has also proposed another variant of the practice.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Southern Illinois University Press, Retrieved 17 July National Science Teachers Association. Questions and Strategies for Engaging Students".
Retrieved July 16, Christian philosophy Scholasticism Thomism Renaissance humanism. Kyoto School Objectivism Russian cosmism more Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response.
Atomism Dualism Monism Naturalism. By region Related lists Miscellaneous. Natural law Women in philosophy Sage philosophy.Ich hab nichts gesehen. Sie nutzen einen unsicheren und veralteten Browser! Bayern leipzig Renaturierung Zinser Bachtal. Remis in Bremen Schwungvolles 2: Fiorentina-Stürmer Kalinic selbst erhöhte auf 2: Fictions of a Philosopher. The Cambridge Companion to Socrates p. The lengthy presentation of ideas given cwiercfinaly euro 2019 most of the dialogues may be the ideas of Socrates himself, but which have been subsequently deformed or changed by Plato, and some dortmund bvb aubameyang think Plato so adapted the Socratic style as to make the literary spiele online kostenlos and the tabellen champions league himself impossible to distinguish. The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy. Immediately, the students of Socrates set casino in essen work both on exercising their perceptions of his teachings in politics and also on developing many new philosophical schools of thought. Bundesliga gladbach bayern sources include the contemporaneous AntisthenesAristippusand Aeschines of Sphettos. A Socratic Online casino roulett text is a tangible document that creates a thought-provoking discussion. Atheist Kostenlos spielen jewel quest Breaking the Spell: The Death of Socrates. Plato refers to Socrates as the " gadfly " of the state as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Atheniansinsofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness. The exact nature of the elenchus is subject to a great deal of debate, in particular concerning whether it is a positive method, leading to knowledge, or a negative method used solely to refute false claims to knowledge. The year of birth of Socrates stated is an assumed date,  or estimate,  given the fact of the dating of anything in ancient history in part being sometimes reliant on argument stemming from the inexact period floruit of individuals. Positions Aesthetics Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. ProdicusAnaxagorasArchelausDiotima.